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HBS Working Knowledge
Jul 18, 2019

The Internet of Things Needs a Business Model. Here It Is.
Companies have struggled to find the right opportunities for selling the Internet of Things. Rajiv Lal says that's all about to change.

HBS Working Knowledge
Jul 16, 2019

Juul's Mission: Convince 1 Billion Smokers to Switch Habits
In his case, JUUL and the Vaping Revolution, Harvard Business School Professor Mike Toffel discusses the controversy surrounding the exponential growth of JUUL vaping products in 2018, in particular the success of its e-cigarettes with teenage high school students who had never smoked.

HBS Working Knowledge
Jul 15, 2019

Many Executives Are Afraid of Finance. Here's How They Can Gain Confidence
Mihir Desai explains how managers can increase their understanding of how finance works. EXCERPT: Three valuation mistakes to avoid.

HBS Working Knowledge
Jul 11, 2019

Deconstructing 'Customer Experience'
Providing great customer service is no longer confined to just one department. Today it's callled the "customer experience," and everyone in the company is responsible for exceeding expectations.

HBS Working Knowledge
Jul 08, 2019

Are Paywalls Saving Newspapers?
Newspapers with reputable brands and unique content are finding success behind paywalls. For most papers, however, he future is not so clear, says Doug J. Chung.

HBS Working Knowledge
Jul 07, 2019

Walmart's Workforce of the Future
A recent case study by William Kerr explores Walmart's efforts on workforce makeup and training, digital infrastructure, and automation technology.

HBS Working Knowledge
Jul 03, 2019

The Controversial History of United Fruit


HBS Working Knowledge
Jul 02, 2019

Risk-Mitigating Technologies: The Case of Radiation Diagnostic Devices
Using media coverage of over-radiation accidents involving CT scanners, the researchers study the impact of consumers' risk perception on firm innovation.

HBS Working Knowledge
Jul 01, 2019

The Airbnb Lesson for Startups? Success Takes More Than Technology
As investors speculate about the timing of an Airbnb IPO, Thales S. Teixeira discusses the analog tactics and economic conditions that helped catapult the company.

HBS Working Knowledge
Jul 01, 2019

Are Super Stretch Goals Only for the Very Young?
Forget about management by objectives. Today's flashy performance motivators are 'super stretch goals,' and they have Silicon Valley buzzing. But can their audacious targets be managed properly? asks James Heskett.

HBS Working Knowledge
Jun 30, 2019

The Comprehensive Effects of Sales Force Management: A Dynamic Structural Analysis of Selection, Compensation, and Training
When sales forces are well managed, firms can induce greater performance from them. For this study, the authors collaborated with a major multinational firm to develop and estimate a dynamic structural model of sales employee responses to various management instruments like compensation, training, and recruiting/termination policies.

HBS Working Knowledge
Jun 29, 2019

Infrastructure and Finance: Evidence from India's GQ Highway Network
In India, the Golden Quadrilateral highway network connects four major cities. This study of the relationship between the infrastructure project and development of the local financial sector finds that, in districts along and near the GQ, initial levels of financial development shaped how, and where, infrastructure investment could jumpstart real economic activity.

HBS Working Knowledge
Jun 27, 2019

Rituals Strengthen Couples. Here's Why They're Good For Business, Too
Couples with deliberate rituals feel more satisfied with their relationships, says research by Michael I. Norton and Ximena Garcia-Rada. Can businesses benefit?

HBS Working Knowledge
Jun 27, 2019

The Effect of Payment Choices on Online Retail: Evidence from the 2016 Indian Demonetization
Online sellers in many emerging markets are in the early stages of a shift from cash-based payments to digital payments. Findings from this study of a leading Indian online retailer show that firms may enjoy gains from consumer demand on top of operational gains resulting from payment digitization.

HBS Working Knowledge
Jun 26, 2019

Why the US-China Tariff Standoff Hurts American Companies More
US exporters have been slashing the prices of goods they sell to China to offset higher trade costs, but Chinese exporters are passing those costs to American companies, research by Alberto F. Cavallo says.

HBS Working Knowledge
Jun 25, 2019

The Powerful Marketing Tool Companies Should Not Try to Control
3QUESTIONS More executives are tapping user communities for strategic guidance, but productive relationships with fan groups require a nuanced approach, Frank Nagle says.

HBS Working Knowledge
Jun 25, 2019

The Powerful Strategic Tool Companies Should Not Try to Control
3QUESTIONS More executives are tapping user communities for strategic guidance, but productive relationships with fan groups require a nuanced approach, Frank Nagle says.

HBS Working Knowledge
Jun 25, 2019

The Powerful Strategy Tool Companies Should Not Try to Control
3QUESTIONS More executives are tapping user communities for strategic guidance, but productive relationships with fan groups require a nuanced approach, Frank Nagle says.

HBS Working Knowledge
Jun 25, 2019

In the Platform Economy, Uplift Searches for Better Matches in the Cloud
Stephane Kasriel, the CEO of Upwork, the leading platform for freelance labor, considers different pricing solutions and ways to improve the matching process as part of a business model redesign.

HBS Working Knowledge
Jun 25, 2019

In the Platform Economy, Upwork Searches for Better Matches in the Cloud
Stephane Kasriel, the CEO of Upwork, the leading platform for freelance labor, considers different pricing solutions and ways to improve the matching process as part of a business model redesign.

HBS Working Knowledge
Jun 19, 2019

Migrant Inventors and the Technological Advantage of Nations
This study by Prithwiraj Choudhury and colleagues provides robust econometric evidence for how immigrant inventors shape the innovation dynamics of their receiving countries.

HBS Working Knowledge
Jun 18, 2019

Can Khan Academy Scale to Educate Anyone, Anywhere?


HBS Working Knowledge
Jun 17, 2019

Can Health Care Companies Learn To Compete?
3QUESTIONS: Why is it so difficult for health care providers to compete for customers? Raffella Sadun and Leemore Dafny discuss why health care needs a business strsategy.

HBS Working Knowledge
Jun 17, 2019

The Comprehensive Effects of a Digital Paywall Sales Strategy
Many print media firms are switching to a business model requiring readers to pay for online content. This study of media paywall strategies in the US finds that adopting a digital paywall can lead to positive demand substitution from digital to print channels, particularly for large-sized firms and those with unique content.

HBS Working Knowledge
Jun 17, 2019

What Health Care Companies Must Learn to Compete
3QUESTIONS: Why is it so difficult for health care providers to compete for customers? Raffaella Sadun and Leemore Dafny discuss why health care needs a business strategy.

HBS Working Knowledge
Jun 17, 2019

What Hospitals Must Learn to Compete
3QUESTIONS: Why is it so difficult for health care providers to compete for customers? Raffaella Sadun and Leemore Dafny discuss why health care needs a business strategy.

HBS Working Knowledge
Jun 12, 2019

Investors Have More Than Money to Offer Entrepreneurs
Running a startup is an endless list of solving problems, and entrepreneurs can be quickly overwhelmened. Julia Austin advises seeking guidance from investors.

HBS Working Knowledge
Jun 11, 2019

These Aren't Beach Books, but Managers Should Read Them Anyway
As you contemplate your summer reading, here are recent books from Harvard Business School management scholars that can boost your career and improve on-the-ground management skills.

HBS Working Knowledge
Jun 11, 2019

Throwing the Baby Out with the Drinking Water: Unintended Consequences of Arsenic Mitigation Efforts in Bangladesh
In this study of the 1994 discovery of arsenic in ground water in Bangladesh, Reshmaan Hussam and colleagues investigate the possibility of unintended health consequences from public health interventions.

HBS Working Knowledge
Jun 10, 2019

Going Digital: Implications for Firm Value and Performance
This study of the economic performance of nontech firms adopting digital technologies finds a persistent future increase in valuation. However, investors only slowly incorporate the value implications of digital activities into prices.

HBS Working Knowledge
Jun 08, 2019

The Gift of Global Talent: Innovation Policy and the Economy
This chapter pulls from William Kerr's book "The Gift of Global Talent" to examine the migration dynamics of high-skilled individuals. He argues that improving our knowledge of high-skilled migration can lead to better policy decisions.

HBS Working Knowledge
Jun 07, 2019

Are You a Digital Manager?
Linda Hill explains how the digital workplace is generating greater burdens on managers but also creating new opportunities to shine. PLUS: Book excerpt.

HBS Working Knowledge
Jun 07, 2019

Are You Prepared to Be a Manager in the Digital Workplace?
Linda Hill explains how the digital workplace is placing greater burdens on managers but also creating new opportunities to shine. PLUS: Book excerpt.

HBS Working Knowledge
Jun 07, 2019

Reflexivity in Credit Markets
Investors' biases and market outcomes affect each other in a two-way feedback loop. This study develops a model of a credit market feedback loop, finding that when investors become more bullish this can predict positive returns in the short run, even if expected returns become more negative at longer horizons.

HBS Working Knowledge
Jun 05, 2019

If Your Customers Don't Care What You Charge, What Should You Charge?
Consumer inertia is the tendency of some customers to buy a product, even when superior options exist. Alexander J. MacKay discusses how that tendency affects competitive strategy and regulatory oversight.

HBS Working Knowledge
Jun 05, 2019

How Transparency into Internal and External Responsibility Initiatives Influences Consumer Choice
Three studies examined how firms can use transparency into social and environmental responsibility initiatives to differentiate themselves in the consumer market.

HBS Working Knowledge
Jun 05, 2019

When Your Customers Don't Care What You Charge, What Should You Charge?
Consumer inertia is the tendency of some customers to buy a product, even when superior options exist. Alexander J. MacKay discusses how that tendency affects competitive strategy and regulatory oversight.

HBS Working Knowledge
Jun 04, 2019

Israel Turns 70: Does it Need a Rebrand?


HBS Working Knowledge
Jun 04, 2019

Political Influence and Merger Antitrust Reviews
This paper uses a large sample of U.S. mergers between 1998 and 2010 to study how political connections help firms obtain favorable antitrust regulatory outcomes for mergers. Given that antitrust regulators are subject to congressional oversight, the authors predict and find evidence that outcomes systematically favor firms that are constituents of politicians serving on judiciary committees.

HBS Working Knowledge
Jun 03, 2019

Memory and Representativeness
In this study, we explore the foundations of individuals' probabilistic judgments, looking to better understand the sources of systematic errors.

HBS Working Knowledge
May 30, 2019

Is There a Distinctive West Coast Style of Management?
James Heskett suggests that West Coast companies and universities have invented their own style of management to take advantage of hyperchange in the market. Is a manager just a manager, or does geography matter? What do you think?

HBS Working Knowledge
May 30, 2019

US Antitrust Law and Policy in Historical Perspective
This article chronicles the United States judiciary's shifting interpretations of antitrust law and policy over the past 125 years.

HBS Working Knowledge
May 28, 2019

Labor Market Shocks and the Demand for Trade Protection: Evidence from Online Surveys
Rafael Di Tella and Dani Rodrik study how people's opinions about trade protectionism and compensatory financial transfers change when presented with six different types of shocks, all of which have the same effect on local labor markets.

HBS Working Knowledge
May 28, 2019

Investor Lawsuits Against Auditors Are Falling, and That's Bad News for Capital Markets
It's becoming more difficult for investors to sue corporate auditors, which can weaken trust in US capital markets, says Suraj Srinivasan.

HBS Working Knowledge
May 27, 2019

Voting Trusts and Antitrust: Rethinking the Role of Shareholder Rights and Private Litigation in Public Regulation, 1880s to 1930s
Historically, judges were reluctant to intervene in corporations' internal affairs and displayed a particular wariness of shareholders' derivative suits. By the end of the 19th century, however, they had begun to revise their views and to see shareholders' private actions as useful checks on economic concentration.

HBS Working Knowledge
May 23, 2019

These Entrepreneurs Take a Pragmatic Approach to Solving Social Problems
Using business to create social change has been at the center of many entrepreneurial efforts by Harvard Business School alumni. Howard Stevenson discusses their pragmatic approaches to overcoming long odds, featured in a new book.

HBS Working Knowledge
May 22, 2019

Forgiving Student Loan Debt Leads to Better Jobs, Stronger Consumers
Without the burden of student loan debt, people seek higher-paying careers, stabilize their finances, and contribute to the economy, says Marco Di Maggio.

HBS Working Knowledge
May 21, 2019

If the Key to Business Success Is Focus, Why Does Amazon Work?


HBS Working Knowledge
May 21, 2019

rTSR: When Do Relative Performance Metrics Capture Relative Performance?
Managers are increasingly evaluated based on relative performance metrics, particularly relative total shareholder returns (rTSR). A significant portion of firms make relatively poor choices in the design and selection of rTSR, a result of weak governance and an overreliance on compensation consultants.

HBS Working Knowledge
May 20, 2019

Activist CEOs Are Rising Up—and Their Customers Are Listening
Are product sales effected by the CEO's stance on political and social issues? Michael Toffel and Aaron Chatterji study how consumers react to vocal chief executives.

HBS Working Knowledge
May 15, 2019

'Ethics Bots' and Other Ways to Move Your Code of Business Conduct beyond Puffery
Digital technologies such as artificial intelligence and robotics allow companies to create more effective codes of business conduct, says Eugene Soltes. But technology isn't the only solution.

HBS Working Knowledge
May 15, 2019

The Unconventional Capitalism That Shapes Business History
Geoffrey G. Jones reports out on a business hiastory research conference studying the many shades of capitalism around the world and through time.

HBS Working Knowledge
May 14, 2019

Do Experts Listen to Other Experts? Field Experimental Evidence from Scientific Peer Review
Influence is a fundamental aspect of collective decisions. It is thus crucial to consider not only the composition of evaluation panels but also their deliberation process. This study illuminates drivers of influence among an elite population of experts and contributes to our understanding of resource allocation in science and other expert domains.

HBS Working Knowledge
May 14, 2019

Ethics Bots and Other Ways to Move Your Code of Business Conduct Beyond Puffery
Digital technologies such as artificial intelligence and robotics allow companies to create more effective codes of business conduct, says Eugene Soltes. But technology isn't the only solution.

HBS Working Knowledge
May 13, 2019

The Changing Landscape of Auditor Litigation and Its Implications for Audit Quality
Data from 1996 to 2016 shows that shareholder litigation against auditors has declined in recent years. Empirical evidence shows that Rule 10b-5, the Securities Act statute used for class action lawsuits, has lost its bite for use against auditors. This decline is driven, at least in part, by the Supreme Court's narrowing of liability standards. These findings suggest weakened shareholder protection with profound implications for investors.

HBS Working Knowledge
May 13, 2019

The Unexpected Way Whistleblowers Reduce Government Fraud
Even unfounded allegations by whistleblowers can force government contractors to renegotiate their terms, says Jonas Heese.

HBS Working Knowledge
May 10, 2019

Consumer Inertia and Market Power
Consumers are often more likely to buy a product if they have purchased it previously. This paper provides a means to estimate the magnitude of this phenomenon of consumer inertia.

HBS Working Knowledge
May 08, 2019

Bank Boards: What Has Changed Since the Financial Crisis?
Since the 2008 financial crisis, bank boards have not improved their cultural or gender diversity compared to other companies nor are they better qualified than before the crisis. Outside directorships of bank directors and the extent of CEOs also being Chairman also remains the same. However, there is some evidence of better risk oversight both from managers and the board.

HBS Working Knowledge
May 07, 2019

Managers, Are You Prepared to Handle Religion in the Workplace?


HBS Working Knowledge
May 07, 2019

Managers: Are You Prepared to Handle Religion in the Workplace?


HBS Working Knowledge
May 06, 2019

Consumers Blame Business for Global Health Problems. Can Business Become the Solution?
3QUESTIONS Millions of people have been harmed by cigarettes, defective merchandise, pollution, addiction and other business by-products. Pioneering companies are exploring healthier ways to operate, say Amy C. Edmondson and Dr. Howard K. Koh.

HBS Working Knowledge
May 02, 2019

How To Ask Better Questions
To make the best decisions, managers must ask the right questions. This Harvard Business School research will help you gather the critical information you need.

HBS Working Knowledge
May 01, 2019

Rehabilitating Corporate Purpose
Malcolm S. Salter rebuts shareholder value maximization as a de facto expression of the institutional purpose guiding many managers' decision and proposes an alternative.

HBS Working Knowledge
May 01, 2019

What Should the Leadership of YouTube Do?
CEO Susan Wojcicki and YouTube leadership must decide how to balance growth goals with criticism for posting controversial—but popular—videos. What should YouTube do? asks James Heskett.

HBS Working Knowledge
Apr 30, 2019

New Research and Ideas, April 30, 2019
Why did people vote for Trump again? ... A peek at Nike's digital strategy ... How the financial crisis caught us by surprise.

HBS Working Knowledge
Apr 29, 2019

Is the Digital Age Making Us Petty?
Mobile payment apps help us keep track of shared costs but may also frustrate personal relationships. Research into perceived pettiness by Tami Kim, Ting Zhang, and Michael I. Norton.

HBS Working Knowledge
Apr 25, 2019

Incubators Take Notice: Your Entrepreneurs Are Networking with the Wrong People
Startup incubators used by cities and companies to jump-start innovation have a problem to overcome. Attendees tend to network with people they already know, says research by Rembrand Koning.

HBS Working Knowledge
Apr 24, 2019

The 'Amazon Effect' Is Changing Online Price Competition--and the Fed Needs to Pay Attention
Amazon's power in the retail sector puts price pressure on what competitors charge, with implications for how federal regulators govern inflation, says Alberto F. Cavallo.

HBS Working Knowledge
Apr 24, 2019

The 'Amazon Effect' Is Changing Online Price Competition—and the Fed Needs to Pay Attention
Amazon's power in the retail sector puts price pressure on what competitors charge, with implications for how federal regulators govern inflation, says Alberto F. Cavallo.

HBS Working Knowledge
Apr 23, 2019

New Research and Ideas, April 23, 2019
Tips for becoming a new manager ... A look at the financial gatekeeping role ... Finding a moral corporate compass.

HBS Working Knowledge
Apr 22, 2019

Micromanagers in the Making? Why Salespeople Struggle to Lead
When salespeople become managers, they often do a horrible job. Four key steps can help them—and all soon-to-be managers—make the shift, says Frank V. Cespedes.

HBS Working Knowledge
Apr 22, 2019

Government Technology Policy, Social Value, and National Competitiveness
This study examines the impact of a French law requiring government agencies to favor open source software (OSS) over proprietary software in technology procurement processes. Results suggest a cost-effective policy lever that countries can use to both create global social value and increase their own national competitiveness.

HBS Working Knowledge
Apr 18, 2019

Open Innovation Contestants Build AI-Based Cancer Tool
Radiation oncologists are few in number, especially if you are nowhere near a cancer facility. Could artificial intelligence be used to deliver an oncologist's skills for radiation therapy? Karim R. Lakhani discusses a uniqure open innovation experiment.

HBS Working Knowledge
Apr 17, 2019

How Managers Can Stifle Creativity
3QUESTIONS: Teresa Amabile discusses the roots of creativity, how to achieve more of it, and combining it with artificial intelligence.

HBS Working Knowledge
Apr 17, 2019

How Managers Stifle Creativity
3QUESTIONS: Teresa Amabile discusses the roots of creativity, how to achieve more of it, and combining it with artificial intelligence.

HBS Working Knowledge
Apr 17, 2019

Would You Live in a Smart City Where Government Controls Privacy?
Toronto is experimenting with smart-city concepts envisioned by Google spinoff Sidewalk Labs. Harvard Business School Professors Leslie John and Mitch Weiss discuss the tradeoffs of using technology to improve modern city life at potential costs to digital privacy. Is it worth it?

HBS Working Knowledge
Apr 16, 2019

Can Biometric Tracking Improve Healthcare Provision and Data Quality? Experimental Evidence from Tuberculosis Control in India
This paper shows the benefits of biometric technology for strengthening service delivery and improving the reliability of government data at tuberculosis treatment centers in India.

HBS Working Knowledge
Apr 16, 2019

New Research and Ideas, April 16, 2019
What will happen to my job? ... The quest for a value-based health care system ... How open source software is affecting firm productivity.

HBS Working Knowledge
Apr 15, 2019

Infographic: Can I Please Speak to an Actual Person?
Customers still want the option to access human help in automated service—even if they don't use it, says research by Michelle A. Shell and Ryan W. Buell.

HBS Working Knowledge
Apr 10, 2019

How Entrepreneurs Can Turn Lead Into Gold
Innovative about creating new products, entrepreneurs often lose imagination when it comes to funding their dreams. Andy Wu reveals alternatives beyond friends and family.

HBS Working Knowledge
Apr 10, 2019

Trade Secrets Protection and Antitakeover Provisions
The study examines managers' responses when facing an increased threat of their firm being acquired. Results add to our knowledge of the use of antitakeover provisions.

HBS Working Knowledge
Apr 09, 2019

Formal Employment and Organized Crime: Regression Discontinuity Evidence from Colombia
Using data from Colombia's second-largest city, Medellín, this study tests the relationship between formal employment and participation in crime at the individual level. Results shed light on deterring criminality through improving access to formal sector employment.

HBS Working Knowledge
Apr 09, 2019

New Research and Ideas, April 9, 2019
Tips for motivating workers ... The challenges of operating in emerging markets ... Israeli nutritional startup considers target market.

HBS Working Knowledge
Apr 08, 2019

The Life of Luxury and How to Sell It
Luxury is its own market, but who shops there? Who sells there? What's the best strategy? Researchers at Harvard Business School examine consumerism at the top of the curve.

HBS Working Knowledge
Apr 04, 2019

Women Pay a Higher Career Price in Today's Always-On Work Culture
In industries that prize overwork, both men and women pay the price of missed time with family. But the career damage is more severe for women, says Robin Ely.

HBS Working Knowledge
Apr 04, 2019

Can Mark Zuckerberg Rebuild Trust in Facebook?


HBS Working Knowledge
Apr 03, 2019

Fintech's Game-Changing Opportunities for Small Business
In the new book "Fintech, Small Business, & the American Dream," Karen Mills describes how technology is opening up new capital for entrepreneurs. Around the corner: The transformative benefits of AI and big data.

HBS Working Knowledge
Apr 03, 2019

Learning or Playing? The Effect of Gamified Training on Performance
Is games-based training effective? This study at a large professional services firm adopting a gamified training platform showed the training helps performance when employees are already highly engaged, and harms performance when they're not.

HBS Working Knowledge
Apr 02, 2019

Managerial Quality and Productivity Dynamics
Which managerial skills, traits, and practices matter most for productivity? This study of a large garment firm in India analyzes the integration of features of managerial quality into a production process characterized by learning by doing.

HBS Working Knowledge
Apr 02, 2019

New Research and Ideas, April 2, 2019


HBS Working Knowledge
Apr 01, 2019

HBS Working Knowledge


HBS Working Knowledge
Apr 01, 2019

Does Our Bias against Federal Deficits Need Rethinking?
Not everyone thinks federal budget deficits are bad. Say hello to Modern Monetary Theory, where red ink primes the economic engine and underwrites social good. Or does it? asks James Heskett.

HBS Working Knowledge
Mar 27, 2019

Will Startup Fishbowl Become the Social Media App for Your Industry?


HBS Working Knowledge
Mar 26, 2019

New Research and Ideas, March 26, 2019
Let's work together ... Does biometric technology improve health care? ... How companies respond to takeover threats.

HBS Working Knowledge
Mar 26, 2019

Mitigating the Negative Effects of Customer Anxiety Through Access to Human Contact
Firms increasingly deploy self-service technologies (SSTs) to manage customer interfaces that are inherently stressful. This study finds that customer anxiety during SST transactions can reduce customers' trust in the service provider, but pperational design choices may help.

HBS Working Knowledge
Mar 26, 2019

Managed Ecosystems and Translucent Institutional Logics: Engaging Communities
Organizations increasingly rely on engagement with external communities of contributors. This paper explores transitions to a managed-ecosystem governance mode and its implications for strategy and innovation. To be successful, firms must develop the capabilities to shepherd communities, leverage without exploiting them, and share intellectual property rights.

HBS Working Knowledge
Mar 25, 2019

The Secret Life of Supply Chains
While US policymakers and politicians focus on reviving the manufacturing sector, Karen Mills and Mercedes Delgado find a source of better jobs hidden in plain sight. Call it the supply chain economy.

HBS Working Knowledge
Mar 21, 2019

The Ferrari Way
Secretive sports car maker Ferrari opens up to Professor Stefan Thomke about how it has achieved success—by bucking industry trends.

HBS Working Knowledge
Mar 21, 2019

Advancing Computational Biology and Bioinformatics Research Through Open Innovation Competitions
Crowdsourcing is a way for many individuals to address a common problem. This paper describes the design and outcomes of three crowdsourcing contests focused on algorithms for 1) clustering antibody sequences, 2) imputing gene expression measurements, and 3) performing fast queries on a particular dataset. Innovation through contests greatly improved the solutions available.

HBS Working Knowledge
Mar 20, 2019

In the Shadows? Informal Enterprise in Non-Democracies
With the informal economy representing a third of the GDP in an average Middle East and North African country, why do chronically indebted regimes tolerate such a large and untaxed shadow economy? Among this study's findings, higher rates of public sector employment correlate with greater permissibility of firm informality.

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